Our Founder, General Choi Hong Hi, (2 Star) Major-General (Army Serial #10044)
Ambassador Choi was the “principle founder” of Taekwon-Do as credited by the Encyclopedia Britannica. As a founding member of the south Korean Army he taught martial arts to the soldiers assigned to him from 1946. He named Taekwon-Do and promoted it endlessly as the Korean Martial Art of Self Defense. He was the Vice President of a short-lived Taekwon-Do Association of Korea in 1957. He formed the Korean Taekwon-Do Association (KTA) in 1959 and served as the first President. Also in 1959 he wrote the first book on Taekwon-Do and led the Military Taekwon-Do Demonstration Team to Vietnam and Taiwan, marking the first time ever Taekwon-Do was performed abroad.
General Choi would devise 26 Patterns or Tuls. These were the first Korean forms ever created. In 1962 he personally introduced Taekwon-Do to Malaysia when he was assigned there as the first Korean Ambassador. In 1965 he led a Korean government sponsored Kukki Taekwon-Do Goodwill tour around the world. The tour formed the base in 1966 for creating International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF), the world’s first global governing body for Taekwon-Do. This marked the first time ever that Korea was home to any international organization. The ITF would grow to have millions of members in well over a hundred countries and he would preside over 17 of their World Championships during his lifetime. General Choi traveled the world tirelessly to teach and promote the original Taekwon-Do. He authored 5 books on the subject, many of which had numerous editions and several reprints. His written works have been translated into at least 8 languages. He also oversaw the development of various sets of electronic recordings of what he created; making it the most documented Martial Art ever.
General Choi Hong-Hi was born in 1918 in Hwa Dae Ri, Ham Kyung Buk Do, a Province in the northeastern part of Korea near Cheongjin. It is important to note that when General Choi was born, Korea was a unified Nation. However Korea was suffering under a brutal occupation by Imperial Japan. Koreans often refer to this time as the “Dark Period.” When he was born Korea utilized the Lunar calendar. Using the Lunar calendar his birthday was November 9, 1918. However on the Western calendar it was December 22. However General Choi preferred to celebrate his birthday on November 9 on the Western calendar, thus combining the two cultures he would come to live within.
General Choi had been exposed to stories and some basic Taek Kyon techniques to bolster his health and confidence when he studied Calligraphy as a frail teenager. Ironically his Father sent him to study Calligraphy and the Chinese classics as he was expelled from his local Japanese controlled school for participating in protests as a youngster. This demonstrated early on his stubbornness, strong independence streak, affinity for justice and anti-Japanese sentiment, the latter influenced by his Father’s feelings that they shared. Years later as he grew older he went to Japan to further his academic education. While there he would go onto earn a II Dan Black Belt in a form of Shotokan Karate. Independent sources confirm that he did indeed teach Karate in Japan at a YMCA before returning home to Korea.
As World War II was winding down, the Japanese who were now clearly losing, resorted to forcefully conscripting Korean males into military service. Once drafted into service through no volition of his own, a young Choi Hong-Hi became involved in a plot to overthrow the Imperial Japanese Colonial Government. Eventually the plotters planned to join what some called the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and the efforts of Korean guerrilla warrior Kim Il-Sung, who rose to be a commander of their underground resistance and independence movement. He was high on the Japanese most wanted list. The success of this movement and Korean resistance army was aided by the availability to move back and forth across the borders of China and the Soviet Union that were located in this northeast region of Korea. Traitors who were Korean collaborators reported the plans and General Choi and others were jailed. While he was imprisoned he trained in his Karate and at times even instructed the prison guards, as verified by a fellow inmate who was involved in the plot and also held in confinement as a jail mate.
The end of WWII spared General Choi and he was released from captivity in Pyongyang. He went to Seoul and became instrumental in helping to set up the south Korean government, advocating for democratic national control and against communism. As a young 2nd Lieutenant he started to teach his soldiers Karate under the Tang Su Do label. As this Junior Officer moved up the ranks, he continued to spread this through not only his personal teaching efforts, but he also later recruited Korean Martial Artists to become instructors to teach the growing number of soldiers under his command. Even when he traveled to the United States for military training as early as 1949, he took the opportunity to display his martial art (most likely first Korean to do so).
A prime example of this initiative to teach the martial arts to his soldiers was when as a General he was tasked to form a new Division on JeJu Island. The 29th Infantry would become known as the “Fist Division”. It was here that he had Lieutenant Nam Tae-Hi and Sergeant Han Cha-Kyo, members of the Chung Do Kwan transferred under his command and assigned to teach the Martial Arts to the soldiers of this new Infantry Division. The use of General Choi’s fist on the Division Flag and emblem was symbolic of the Martial fighting spirit the young General wanted to instill in his Troops. A monument was erected on JeJu Island to commemorate the historic “Fist Division” inauguration. This monument contains the Calligraphy of Gen. Choi, labeling and teaching about that Martial Spirit. As a result of this history JeJu Island has come to be known as the “Womb of Taekwon-Do”.
When this famous Division completed their training they moved to mainland Korea. General Choi arranged for a martial art demonstration for the south Korean President Dr. Seung-Man Rhee, PhD. The performance was in honor of both the President’s birthday and the 1-year anniversary celebration of the “Fist” Division’s formation. Their exhibition was so successful that the President stated that this should be taught to all the Troops! Dr. Rhee had also called what they showed Taek Kyon, an indigenous Korean martial folk game that predated the Japanese occupation. General Choi however knew that is was more correctly called Tang Soo Do. This event provided motivation to find a new name for what would become a Korean Martial Art of self-defense.
Later in the fall and winter of that year (1954) General Choi, utilizing both his advanced education and Calligraphy skills that involved extensive knowledge of Chinese characters and language, searched for and later conceived of the new term Tae Kwon Do. This label more accurately reflected the shifting emphasis on the use of the legs for kicking. It of course had a word for fist, but like the “Fist Division,” a hand formed into a fist signified strength. So Kwon was joined with Tae to describe the physical parts of their Martial Art. General Choi gave directions to his instructors to have the soldiers shout TAE KWON when saluting, to help cement usage of the new name. This tradition is still carried on by millions of students following the ITF even today every time they bow.
After General Choi created the new name of Taekwon-Do, he then engaged in several attempts to unify the civilian Martial Art Kwans as he had obtained the south Korean President’s approval as evidenced by the Calligraphy of Taekwon-Do that Dr. Rhee penned with his own hand. In 1957 he became the Vice President of a short-lived Taekwon-Do Association of Korea. The president of the Association at that time was a non-martial artist and politician named Lee Jae-Hahk. Then Master Son Duk-Sung the instructor of the Chung Do Kwan served as the Secretary General. General Choi also served as the honorary Kwan Jang Nim of the Chung Do Kwan, after their founder Grandmaster Lee Won-Kuk moved to Japan in 1950 to escape political maltreatment. The Chung Do Kwan was one of the 1st Korean Martial Art Kwans to open post WWII in Korea. It was a very influential Kwan and many of their members staffed General Choi’s military training programs as instructors and senior leaders.
In 1959 he led the 1st Taekwon-Do Demonstration Team abroad when he took the team to Vietnam and Taiwan in March. That same year he established and became the first Director of the Martial Art Department in the Army. On September 3rd, 1959 he formed the first Korean Taekwon-Do Association and served as the initial President. A couple of months later he authored the first book ever on Taekwon-Do, written in both Korean HanGul and Chinese HanJa. This book documented the first five Korean Patterns he created along with the assistance of the soldiers under his command. (Hwa-Rang, Chung-Mu, Ul-Ji, U-Nam and Sam-Il). This historic book is on display in the museum history section of the Taekwondowon in MuJu Korea.
General Choi would go on to author several other books, including the 1972 textbook that became known as the “bible of Taekwon-Do”, the unprecedented 15 Volume Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do in 1983, several condensed versions of that work, his 3 Volume Set of Memoirs, as well as a Guidebook on Moral Culture. His written texts have been translated into Korean, Chinese, English, German, Spanish, Russian, Japanese and Dari (Farsi or Afghan Persian). He has received at least 3 Doctorate Degrees “honoris causa,” numerous awards and honors for his global work on Taekwon-Do including a Korean Government Sports Award in 1968.
(PhDs was awarded in 1992 Physical Education, 1999 Sports Science, 2001 Philosophy)
While still Ambassador to Malaysia he flew to Vietnam in 1964 to introduce his new Tuls to the Korean Military Instructors there for further dissemination. He also sent the manuscripts back to Korea where they were instituted there as well. After completing his diplomatic assignment he returned to Korea and in January of 1965 was elected the 3rd President of the Korean TAE SOO DO Association. He was successful in getting them to change the name to Tae Kwon Do by August of 1965, by a reported 1-vote margin. He then led as Ambassador-At-Large a Korean Government sponsored Kukki Taekwon-Do Goodwill Tour around the world later in the fall of 1965. On that global tour he also distributed his English book on Taekwon-Do: The Korean Art of Self Defense. This was the first book on Taekwon-Do written in the English language.
Ambassador Choi moved the ITF Headquarters to Toronto Canada, a city that is a very diverse major metropolitan area in North America. This new location afforded him a geographically advantaged position half way between Asia and Europe, as well as due north from South America and the Caribbean. Strategically this would help to further the internationalization of Taekwon-Do as a global martial art. Canada would also be the host for the upcoming Olympics, something that General Choi desired to have his Taekwon-Do become part of.
In 1985 he again relocated the ITF Headquarters to Vienna Austria. Vienna is located in Central Europe and Austria maintains a long-standing neutral posture that allows equal access politically. This was especially important during the “Cold War” era and the days of the “Iron Curtain” divide of Europe and the global political polarization that resulted from competing political ideologies. This brilliant move helped Ambassador Choi to further his dream of spreading his Taekwon-Do all around the world, without regard for political ideology, national boundaries, race, religion or creed. A vision that he lived to see come true!
Today there are numerous national headquarters, national and allied associations of the ITF all around the planet. This is living proof of the fact that his dream was indeed realized.
After a life dedicated to the development of Taekwon-Do, a modern martial art based on traditional values, philosophy, and training, General Choi, Founder of Taekwon-Do and President of the International Taekwon-Do Federation, died on June 15th, 2002, in the country of his birth.
General Choi Hong Hi, Founder and President of the International Taekwon-Do Federation died on June 15th, 2002, in Pyongyang, People’s Democratic Republic of Korea.
A Partial Chronological Listing
In 1959, Taekwon-Do spread beyond its national boundaries. The father of Taekwon-Do and nineteen of his top black belt holders toured the Far East. The tour was a major success, astounding all spectators with the excellence of the Taekwon-Do techniques.
In this year, Choi was elevated to two illustrious posts; President of his newly formed Korea Taekwon-Do Association and deputy commander of the 2nd Army in Tae Gu. In 1965 Ambassador Choi, retired two star general, was appointed by the Government of the Republic of Korea to lead a goodwill mission to West Germany, Italy, Turkey, United-Arab Republic, Malaysia, and Singapore. This trip is significant in that the Ambassador, for the first time in Korean history, declared Taekwon-Do as the national martial art of Korea.
This was the basis not only for establishing Taekwon-Do Associations in these countries but also the formation of the International Taekwon-Do Federation as it is known today. In 1966, the dream of the sickly young student of calligraphy, who rose to Ambassador and the Association President of the most respected martial art in the world came true. On the 22nd of March, the International Taekwon-Do Federation was formed with associations in Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, West Germany, the United States, Turkey, Italy, Arab Republic of Egypt and Korea.
The philosophical values and the goals of Taekwon-Do are firmly rooted in the traditional moral culture of the Orient. On the technical side, defensive and offensive tactics are based on principles of physics, particularly Newton´s Law, which explains how to generate maximum force by increasing speed and mass during the execution of a movement.
Wanting to share the results of his philosophical reflections and his technical experiments, General Choi planned and wrote a unique reference work, the Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do. In its fifteen volumes, he explained in detail the rules and practices of this art.
Always striving for excellence, General Choi presented Taekwon-Do as in a state of continuous evolution, open to changes that would improve its effectiveness. He wrote that anyone who believes he has fully discharged his duty will soon perish. Likewise, any undertaking that is perceived to have reached its objectives is likely to lose momentum, stagnate, and die.
Since the beginning, Taekwon-Do has never stopped evolving, driven by the strong will and a lot of hard work by its Founder. The leaders of the ITF today also recognize the need to evolve and they are equally passionate about the future of the organization.
|1955||Taekwon-Do officially named|
|1966||March 22nd – ITF founded by General Choi Hong Hi, the Father of Taekwon-Do|
|1969||First Asian Tournament, Hong Kong|
|1972||ITF headquarters moved to Toronto (Canada)|
First World Championships, Montreal (Canada)
|1976||First European Championships, Rotterdam (Netherlands)|
|1979||First Pacific Championships, Wellington, (New Zealand)|
|1979||All Europe Taekwon-Do Federation created|
|1982||North American Federation created|
|1983||Central American Federation created|
|1985||ITF headquarters moved to Vienna (Austria)|
|2002||June 15th – passing of General Choi Hong Hi
The Honourable Russell Maclellan became Acting President
|2003||June 13th – election of Master Trân Trięu Quân as President of the ITF at the 14th Congress of ITF , Warsaw (Poland)|
|2007||June 1st – Re-election of Master Trân Triêu Quân for a second mandate as President of the ITF at the 16th Congress of ITF, Quebec City (Canada).
30th October ITF is legally registered Minister of Internal Affairs in Madrid (Spain) Rec. Grupo 1/Secc. 2/ number 50813
|2010||Passing of Grandmaster Trân Triêu Quân
Grandmaster Pablo Trajtenberg became acting President
|2011||Election of Grandmaster Pablo Trajtenberg as ITF President|
|2015||Re-election in 2015 of GM Trajtenberg as ITF President ( Congress in Jesolo)|
Quite often our philosophy is referred to as “ the DO “, or “ the Way “. Such philosophy states that the practical learning of Taekwon-Do is of little value if its spiritual side is relegated. Mind and body are considered inseparable as General Choi Hong Hi, founder of Taekwon-Do, laid special emphasis on this idea by joining the lettering of our art with a hyphen that links both parts, showing how essential this is to an harmonious and simultaneous development.
It means that the moment one takes up physical performance with tenacity and perseverance – the part we are likely to enjoy most – it also becomes necessary to apply our tenets and fully exercise them in practice, not as a mere repetition or as a memory habit but rather to adopt a way of living which will tune us with the power that practicing Taekwon-Do provides us.
In the words of our founder, courtesy ranks as the most important of such tenets, for it is a category that sets us in a different class from animals; only does the human being have the capacity to show courtesy and if we all showed it, there would be fewer social conflicts, since those conflicts many times occur for lack of finesse rather than because of profound disagreements over an issue.
Fostering integrity is essential in order to raise our self-esteem, by valuing our individuality we come to respect ourselves and understand that any meaningful achievement requires self-esteem.
Perseverance is the quality that will enable us to reach goals beyond our inborn skills. Nature may have endowed us with the very best ingredients but if we do not practice often enough, in the long run we shall be defeated by that practitioner who possesses the necessary tenacity and perseverance to train and train relentlessly, and overpower a more gifted rival.
Self-control is one of the essential principles in our practice, for it channels aggression and teaches us how to make that energy flow in a positive way, preventing any gratuitous violence that may be triggered by excessive energy. It is fundamental to keep a balance between reason and emotion, as a way of acquiring the necessary self-confidence when the moment demands to choose a certain course of action.
Indomitable spirit means precisely to muster all determination and courage for a wise choice in situations where we must overcome fear and it is this wild spirit which allows the Taekwon-Do practitioner to achieve their goals, no matter what inconveniences or obstacles might block the way and especially when freedom and justice are at stake.
As well as the student´s duties, the five tenets cited above are crucial to our philosophy. The first one states that one should “observe the tenets of Taekwon-Do”, then followed by “respect senior and elders”, which perhaps is not well rooted enough among the younger generations; this tenet is not only about respecting those who are more knowledgeable in our Taekwon-Do class but rather to be kind and considerate at all times towards elderly people by giving them our full attention and the thoughtfulness that they deserve. This starts in the relationship with our own children and our pupils, who will faithfully follow our example.
“Do not distort the Taekwon-Do name¨. Here is a warning against making a wrong use of our knowledge and our sparring practice, preventing any transformation of this defense system into an attacking system and avoiding any obtainment of things by force and the misuse of our art. Again, this is related with the need for self-control as a way to limit aggressiveness.
¨Being a champion of freedom and justice¨ defines life itself as the true tournament and the choice of values, which the practitioner embraces as its main requirement, respecting freedom and enforcing its respect, which should be defended by a fair justice.
¨Helping to build a more peaceful world¨ is one of the duties which best synthesizes our philosophy, since the application of what is stated above turns the Taekwon-Do practitioner into a more qualified member in their contribution to the effective improvement of our society.
Empathy is that attitude which consists in knowing how to place oneself in our fellow being´s position, especially when they are suffering. Such predisposition will always bring about positive deeds, as long as we do not lose sight that the world is populated by all kinds of creatures, besides ourselves.
In peace with our conscience and by nurturing our spiritual growth, we may rely that younger generations will benefit from a social evolution that will add to a happier and more fulfilling life.
The key to developing the spiritual qualities we mention is not to merely repeat such statements every lesson but rather the in conviction we place in our beliefs and to be able to fully incorporate them into our lives.
The ITF possesses a special program launched by the late GM Tran Trieu Quan, which boosts the teaching of such values, and this program is available to all member countries. The culmination of such a program has been the responsibility of Dr. Janel Gauthier, who together with members of a committee, aim is to train for its tuition. Together we will be able to put it into practice, provided we are willing to carry out a profound and sincere analysis of our own behaviour, which is no easy task in a world which often favours a more materialistic approach.
(extract from “The Art of Taekwon-Do ITF” 2014)
The ITF wishes to acknowledge those who contributed to the development of Taekwon-Do and the ITF in the past, though some may no longer be with us, nevertheless we acknowledge their involvement in Taekwon-Do. They are sometimes referred to as Pioneers, the early instructors or first to bring Taekwon-Do to certain regions of the world, or to assist Gen. Choi in the development and promotion of the art of Taekwon-Do. This section of the website will take time to compile in a careful and accurate way and we ask for your help. If you have pictures, information or historical documents relating to the Pioneers of Taekwon-Do, please email communications@tkd-itf.
The Oh Do Kwan: Was the Military Gym that was co-founded by Gen. Choi and Col. Nam. After a very successful legendary demonstration in front of the 1st Korean President Dr. RHEE Seung-Man, in which the President directed Gen. Choi to teach the Martial Arts to all the Troops, the Oh Do Kwan became the facility to carry out that mandate. The name translates to gym of my way or my gym. Hence each individual soldier could feel at home in their gym, regardless of the Kwan they may have trained at on the civilian side. The Oh Do Kwan became the training centre that would produce the many instructors needed to spread Taekwon-Do throughout the Korean Military. Gen. Choi was the Director, Capt. Nam the Chief Instructor and Sgt. Han Cha Kyo the Assistant Instructor.
Founder & President 1966-2002
Founding Member, 1st Promotion Committee Chairman, Past Vice President
Founding Member who was perhaps the most important person actually responsible for the logistics in setting up the ITF, 1st Chief Instructor of Instructor Courses, Designed ITF Crest & Plaque, Former Chairman of the Technique & Merger Committees, Past Secretary General, Instructor of the 1st International Umpire Course, Host of the 1st World Championships, Member of the 4th & 6th ITF Demo Teams, 1974 & 1979
Founding Member who was perhaps the most important person in establishing bases for ITF Member Nations by teaching TKD throughout Southeast Asia & introducing TKD to Vietnam, Head of the 1st ITF Demo Team 1967-8
Founding Member who introduced TKD by demonstrating in Vietnam in 1959 & on the Goodwill around the world in 1965, 1st Chairman of Planning Committee & Former Chairman of the Tournament Committee
Founding Member who introduced TKD by demonstrating it on the Goodwill around the world in 1965, Past Secretary General, Member of the 2nd, 3rd & 4th ITF Demo Teams 1968, 1973 & 1974, Former Member of the Consultative Committee
Past Secretary General & Former Chairman of the ITF Instruction Committee, traveled worldwide as the Chief Instructor, Member of the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th & 8th ITF Demo Teams, 1974 & 1978-81
Founding Member, Member of the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th ITF Demo Teams 1968, 73, 78, 79, 80, Host of the 4th World Championships, Past Vice President
Founding Member who introduced TKD by demonstrating it on the Goodwill around the world in 1965, Member of the 2nd ITF Demo Team 1968, Former Chairman of the Discipline Committee
Founding Member, Member of the 1st ITF Demo Team 1967-8, Former Chief Instructor, Former Vice-Chair of Umpire Committee
Founding Member, Member of the 3rd & 5th, 6th ITF Demo Teams 1973, 78, 79, Former Chairman of Umpire Committee, Designed ITF Tree Logo
Former Chairman of Merger Committee, ITF Spokesperson & Special Assistant to Gen. Choi
Founding Member, Former Chief Instructor
Founding Member, Former Chief Instructor
Founding Member, Member of the 3rd ITF Demo Team 1973, Former Chairman of the Expansion Committee
Founding Member, Member of the 2nd & 3rd ITF Demo Teams 1968, 1973
Past Vice President, Former Assistant Auditor, Member of the 4th & 7th ITF Demo Teams, 1974 & 1980
Past Secretary General, Member of the 7th ITF Demo Team1980
Member of the 6th ITF Demo Team 1979, Former Special Advisor
CHARLES E. SEREFF
Past Vice President & Secretary General, Former Chairman of Collegiate & Promotion Committees, Member of the 7th ITF Demo Team 1980
VAN BINH NYUGEN
Founding Member, Chairman of the Master’s Promotion Committee
Founding Member, Member of 2nd ITF Demo Team 1968
Founding Member, Past Vice President, Former Chairman of Title Committee
Member of the 1st ITF Demo Team 1967-8, Former Chief Instructor & Chairman of Merger Committee
Former long term Under-Secretary General & Secretary General, Treasurer
LEONG WAI MENG
Member of the 5th ITF Demo Team, Former Chairman of the Consultative Committee
Founding Member & Member of the 2nd & 4th ITF Demo Teams, 1968 & 1974
Former Chairman of the Promotion Committee, Member of the 4th ITF Demo Team 1974
Former Chairman of the Umpire Committee, Member of the 4th & 7th ITF Demo Teams 1974 & 1980
TRÂN TRIÊU QUÂN
Former Chairman of the Tournament Committee, Host of the 1990 & 2007 World Championships, Past President who played a vitally important role in navigating the ITF through turbulent times following the passing of General Choi & moving the ITF forward in a professional manner well suited for the 21st Century, before he himself passed away tragically in a massive earthquake in the service of those less fortunate
8th December, 1997 GM Charles E. Sereff A-9-1
8th December, 1997 GM Hwang, Kwang-Sung K-9-1
1st May, 2001 GM Park, Jong-Soo C-9-1
1st March, 2002 GM Van Binh Nguyen A-9-2
1st March, 2002 GM Duc Dang A-9-3
The Original Taekwon-Do that began in the ROK Army as Military Taekwon-Do is perhaps the most thoroughly documented Martial Art ever. Efforts that helped make this a reality started when a young man name Choi Hong-Hi graduated from the 1st Military Academy at the start of 1946, just months after Korea was liberated by a long term occupation by Imperial Japan. The newly Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant Choi kept a daily journal as he began to teach the soldiers under his command when he was deployed to KwangJu as a Company Commander. His notes would include Martial Art moves that he arranged in Patterns that he named after great Korean Patriots or significant historical events or themes of Korea. This founding member of the ROK Army was fiercely determined to create Korea’s own modern Martial Art.
In 1959 he wrote the first book ever on Taekwon-Do, the Art he named and received Presidential authority for just a few years earlier. This book is indeed very rare as copies of his books were ordered destroyed by the military dictatorship after Choi, now a 2-Star Major General fled for his safety in 1972 to live a life of exile, away from the dictator he openly opposed. Thankfully one of General Choi’s protégées, Lt. Colonel Kim Soo-Ryun defied the order and preserved a copy that is now on display in the museum at the Taekwondowon in MuJu Korea. Grandmaster Jung Woo-Jin has preserved another known copy and a digital version is available as an historical artifact. This treasure of history contains the first 5 Korean Patterns, then called Hyungs ever devised. They were Hwa-Rang, Chung-Mu, Ul-Ji, U-Nam and Sam-Il. It was written using both Korean HanGul and Chinese HanJa. By 1960, just the following year a 2nd edition was already needed. This printing however removed the Pattern U-Nam, as it was named after Korea’s first President Dr. Rhee, who ran from the Country as a result of widespread protests against the corruption of his autocratic rule.
This book was published in 2014 by the first ITF technical committee of Grand Master Hector Marano, Grand Master Pablo Trajtenberg and Grand Master Willem Jacob Bos.
“It is our intention that this book helps to spread the standardization of Taekwon-Do ITF techniques produced over a decade (2003-2013), to ensure that the entire International Taekwon-Do ITF world will speak a common language and to encourage new questions from practitioners, which in return inspire us to new challenges.
This book by no means attempts to replace what has already been written in the past, but tries to be a quick updated reference, which allows the basis of a dialogue, covering doubts, and questions that arose whilst teaching during various International Instructor Courses (IIC).” (Extract from Prologue of the Art of Taekwon-Do ITF)